Star Media Babich Design The quiet Kostroma cloister
has never seen so many nobles. Ambassadors of the National
Assembly came from Moscow. They kneeled before great
nun Martha and begged her with tears to bless her son to
be the Tsar of the Moscow State. He is the only one who
hasn’t stained his good name during the Time of Troubles.
He is our only hope… If Mikhail refuses, the
Time of Troubles will return. Our land won’t survive
such a grief again. The House of Romanov. Episode One Year 1598. The son of Ivan
the Terrible Tsar Feodor died. He was the last of the Rurik
House that ruled the country for over 700 years.
Feodor didn’t have children and his younger brother Dmitri
died under unclear circumstances. People elected Boris
Godunov to be their new Tsar. Soon an imposter surfaced
claiming to be Dmitri who allegedly survived.
The False Dmitri seized the Russian throne and married a Polish Marina Mniszech announcing
her to be a Tsarina. In a year the False Dmitri
was murdered and Marina was forced to leave Moscow. When a new impostor
came there she allegedly recognized him as her
husband and soon gave birth to his son Ivan. She
dreamt of turning him into the Russian tsar. The Moscow State remained
without any ruler. Using the anarchy
Sweden and Polish invaded its territory openly. The war started. Russia lost Karelia,
Novgorod and Smolensk. Only 10% of the rest of
the lands were ploughed. There was nobody left
to work on the land. The population decreased several times. Everybody realized that Russia
needed a legitimate Tsar. Otherwise the state will perish. The awful winter of 1613
was coming to the end. People were coming to Moscow
from all over the ruined country. They had to perform
an unbelievable deed. The National Assembly
convened in Moscow to decide on the Motherland’s fate. The National Assembly
is the Russian parliament of the 16-th and 17th centuries. It convened in extraordinary
events to decide on the most crucial political issues. About 1000 people came
to the Assembly in 1613. They were of all classes including
gentry, clergy, merchants, bureaucrats and peasantry. On March 3 the decisive voting was held. After exhausting disputes and
doubts 16 year old Mikhail Romanov was elected the Tsar. Mikhail’s father, Feodor Nikitich Romanov, was a cousin of Tsar Feodor,
the son of Ivan the Terrible. Therefore he could legitimately
lay claims to the throne. But after Boris Godunov came to power Feodor Nikitich was eliminated. He was forced to become a
monk under the name of Filaret and his wife Xenia was made a
nun under the name of Martha. They were sent to different monasteries. Later Filaret was taken
prisoner by the Polish. While carrying out a diplomatic
mission he was arrested together with other members
of the Russian delegation and practically taken hostage.
The Polish didn’t inform Filaret that his son was being
elected a Tsar in Moscow. The decision of the
Assembly was announced at the Red Square in presence
of a huge crowd of people. Mikhail Feodorovitch will
be the Tsar and the ruler of the Moscow State and all the Russia! The scary Time of
Trouble was the backdrop of Mikhail’s childhood and youth years. He was taken away from his
parents when he was only 4 and sent to the village. Later his mother came to take Mikhail back.
They spent a few years in the
down-and-out Moscow. Then they escaped to Kostroma, to Ipatyevo cloister where
they led a quiet life. Hoarse and exhausted ambassadors who brought the icon of
Our Lady of Feodor with them had been talking the Romanovs
into taking the power for hours. After many years of anarchy,
Time of Troubles and destruction a new Tsar ascended
to the Russian throne. He became the founder of the
new Tsar house of Romanov – by the God’s will the Great
Tsar and the Great Duke, the Ruler of the Entire Russia… On Sunday of July 11,
1613 the festivities dedicated to his crowning started. Chapter One. Mikhail Feodorovitch There was no going back now. Mikhail Feodorovitch
Romanov ascended the stairs of the Assumption Cathedral
as a son of a noble and descended them as a
Tsar. The state he was to rule was on the verge of collapse. So the young Tsar listened
to his intuition and chose the only possible mode of
ruling – collective governance. On his initiative the National
Assembly that used to work only once in a few years started
meeting on a regular basis turning into a highest consultative
body of the Russian State. Despite expectations of many
people, Mikhail Feodorovitch didn’t become a marionette in the hands of the enemy noblemen clans.
He ruled the country for real. When one Dutchman hinted that
strict measures were needed the Tsar answered: “Don’t you
know that our Russian bears never hunt in the first year
of life? They only start hunting when they get older”. The ground under Mikhail’s
feet was still unstable. There were three claimants
to the Russian throne: Swedish king Carl Philipp on the
north, Polish Prince Wladislaw on the west and the so
called “little thief” – the 3-year old boy Ivan,
son of Marina Mniszech and impostor False
Dmitri II on the south. An army of Cossacks 3,000
strong headed by adventurer Ivan Zarutskiy was on the boy’s side. But the Tsar’s troops
defeated the Cossacks. The impostors were arrested,
brought to Moscow and executed. The execution took place
at the square in presence of a huge crown of people
by the Serpukhov Gates. The Dutch traveler Elias
Herkman remembered it for the rest of his life. “Zarutskiy was impaled. Then
Dmitri’s son was publicly executed. The snowstorm was blowing.
The snow was slapping the boy on the face. He asked a
few times in a crying voice: “Where are you taking me?”
The people carrying the child were calming him down
until they brought him, as a lamb to the
slaughter, to the gallows. The poor boy was hung as a thief. The adventurers could have used the boy to start a new Time of
Troubles. To avoid that Mikhail, the first Tsar of the new dynasty,
had to agree to the execution and mar his soul with a sin. The new Time of Troubles was avoided. But the war did start. The Swedish troops sieged Pskov. Mikhail ordered his diplomats to
do anything to negotiate peace. In February of 1617 the Stolbov
Peace Treaty was concluded. According to it, Russia got back
Novgorod with adjacent lands. Soon the Polish army went to Moscow. Prince Wladislaw who still had
claims to the Russian throne headed it personally. The Polish
managed to approach the Kremlin – the wall of the White City,
the modern Avenue Circle. The Russians got to know
from the spies that the Polish were digging under it
to mine the Arbat Gates. Despite all persuasion, the
Tsar refused to leave Moscow. He ordered to gather a
large detachment and wait. Apart from the state interests,
he had a personal one. The Polish still held his father
Metropolitan Filaret hostage. Mikhail knew: if he left
Moscow, he would lose the throne. If he lost the throne, he
would never see his father. He fought the Polish despite
bearing substantial loses. On December 1, 1618 the
Truce of Deulino was signed for 14.5 years. Russian
got its lands from Vyazma to Chernigov back. Nevertheless,
many issues remained unresolved. Smolensk and other lands
were still under Poland. Plus Wladislaw didn’t
renounce his claims for the Russian throne.
However the ravaged country couldn’t wage war anymore. It
needed peace to take a breath, to rebuild – at least a dozen of years. However it was the first
personal major victory of Mikhail Feodorovitch.
The main outcome of the truce for Russia was coming
back of all the prisoners taken during the Time of Troubles. His father returned from
Poland. All nine years Mikhail felt their inseparable tie. From an early age, he
wanted to be like his father. Mikhail was looking forward
to meeting his father, the legendary person
– Metropolitan Filaret. After coming back from captivity
and nine-year separation the father look a real Tsar
of all the Russia before him – a God-chosen ruler. In ten
days the Tsar issued an order to appoint Filaret the patriarch
of Moscow and all the Russia. In future they’d rule
together – a father and a son. The influence of his mother, the
all-powerful and authoritative great nun Martha started to diminish. She was dismissed from the state
affairs and was seeing her son less and less often. The
Tsar was in his twenties now. The people were informed accordingly… At God’s will the Great Ruler
Tsar Mikhail Feodorovitch is an adult man now. It is time
for the Tsar to wed himself… Mother Martha found a fianc?e for him. However, Mikhail made
a decision without her. Long ago, during his exile he
fell in love with Masha Khlopova, a daughter of one of his overseers. He promised to marry only her. Maria Khlopova was officially
announced the Tsar’s fiancee and settled in the higher
chambers of the palace. The Saltykov brothers who were
the Tsar mother’s relatives were appointed her bodyguards.
However right before the wedding the fiancee fell ill. The
Tsar was terribly worried. The palace was brewing. The
Saltykovs called a council of foreign doctors
and announced solemnly: “The doctors examined her
and said that a great disease is eating her alive. It’s
impossible to cure her”. People were whispering:
“The Tsar mother must be doing something. She doesn’t
want him to marry Khlopova”. No matter how it was, poor
Masha Khlopova and her relatives were exiled to Siberia. Later
an inquest with cross-examination showed that the Saltykovs were to blame. They were exiled to their
family estates for that. However, the wedding was already
disrupted. For a long time Mikhail didn’t even want
to listen about marrying. Only when he turned 28 his
relatives started to worry. Without an heir, the existence
of the new dynasty was dubious. As before, the great nun
Martha had a candidate. This time “though reluctantly,
he obeyed his mother”. Mikhail married a noble
princess Maria Dolgorukova. They celebrated a wedding,
but soon the fiancee fell ill and died in three month time. She is believed to have been poisoned though it was never proved. After that Mikhail dismissed his
mother from his marital affairs and arranged a traditional
election of a fiancee. …look at the girls from the
distance attentively – appraise her age, face, complexion, eyes,
hair. She must have no mains and be kind by nature. The tradition of electing a
Tsar’s fiancee was in essence a beauty contest. There
were thousands of candidates. First special pickers
sorted the girls at places. They evaluated three
parameters – their height, the size of their head
and the size of their foot. Then the closest noblemen and
court doctors inspected the girls in the capital. In the end 10
to 20 the most beautiful girls were settled in the court and
the Tsar was getting acquainted with them personally. When
Mikhail announced his will the court was speechless. The Tsar chose Evdokia Streshneva to be his wife. She didn’t
participate in the contest because she was a servant
of one of the candidates and a daughter of a poor noblemen. Having his bitter experience
the Tsar ordered to watch her as an apple of his eye.
The name of the fiancee wasn’t announced in advance.
She was settled in the palace just three days before the wedding. Mikhail’s family life was rather good. The Russian Cinderella
– Tsarina Evdokia was kind and calm, loving and beloved. Only four out of ten Mikhail’s and Evdokia’s
children lived, three daughters and a son, Alexei. But it meant
that the new dynasty would live. Soon peace and harmony
settled both in his soul and in his country. A time has come to win back the lands lost during the Time of
Troubles. A new war with Poland was brewing. Mikhail Feodorovitch
started the military reform. It was him and not his
grandson Peter I who started introducing new detachments
imitating the European ones. The Swedish army that was
the strongest in Europe in those times was taken as an example. The regiment consisted of 8
companies 200 soldiers strong, with 120 musketeers and 80 spadesmen. 1,100 new muskets were
bought. They weighted 4 kg instead of 6, therefore
one could fire from them without a support. By
1632 10 new detachments were formed that
amounted to 17,000 people. It is one thing to create a new army. It had to be taught how to win. However time for that hasn’t come yet. The achievements of that
long war were minimal. The Polyana Truce of 1634 left
all the previously won lands except for the town
of Serpeysk to Poland. Russia had to pay the
contribution of 20,000 rubles. But at least Wladislaw
renounced all his claims to the Russian throne. The internal political
situation was much better. Thanks to Mikhail’s efforts,
specialists from Holland and England were now coming
to Russia more readily. They invested their capitals
into the local production and stayed to live,
establishing foreign settlements within the cities,
like the German Village that became so famous
later. The Russians called all the foreigners “Germans”
-“nemtzy” from the Russian word
“nemoy” meaning “deaf” because they couldn’t speak Russian. During the tenth year of his
reign, Mikhail Feodorovitch invited English geologists to
investigate the deposits of iron and copper ores behind
the Urals. In just 8 years, the first state steelmaking
plant was opened at the Urals. The copper-making production
also started. In 12 more years, a Dutch established an armory in Tula that is still working
today. In the first half of the 17th century, Russia
started exporting arms to the most developed
countries of Europe. Many foreigners were surprised
by the taxes and duties in Russia that were
incredibly low for those times. The First Tsar of the Romanov dynasty cared about common workers.
He knew that they were the backbone of the
economic power of his state. The average wages
amounted to 3 kopeks a day. For that amount, one could
buy 3 chickens or 45 eggs or 1.5 kilo of fresh salmon.
One could earn enough to buy a sheepskin coat (50
kopeks) in two weeks, boots (30 kopeks) in ten days and a cow (2 rubles) in two months. The Russian State was
gaining more and more weight in the world. To demonstrate
his favor to the Patriarch the Persian Sheikh Abbas I
sent a part of Lord’s Robe. The Robe is a seamless piece
of clothing received by one of the soldiers present at
the Jesus Christ’s crucifixion. On obtaining the sacred Robe
Filaret ordered a one-week lent and to bring the cloth to the sick. 67 people were miraculously
cured during the first six months and 4 – during the second
six months of the year. A celebration dedicated
to the Robe was established in the church calendar. A
Cathedral of Robe Deposition was constructed on the
territory of the Kremlin. Today one part of the Robe is kept in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior. After general savagery
of the Time of Troubles, the new authorities cared about
the cultural revival of Russia. One of the first Filaret’s
orders was to restore the ravaged Printing Court
and once huge Tsar’s library. Special people were
sent to search for books in all the distant monasteries
and bring them to Moscow. Unique books that existed in one
issue stayed where they were – they were to be copied. After just three decades after
absolute destruction and anarchy, Russia returned to the
previous level of economy. “The trade was expanding;
crafts were developing. ” The country was getting
richer and was rebuilding. Hunger and destruction
didn’t threaten it anymore. It was an epoch of economic
and political stability. Meek Tsar Mikhail Feodorovitch
managed to do the undoable. On July 12, 1645 Tsar was
celebrating his birthday. In the morning after the church service Mikhail seemed to feel
his imminent decease. He publicly forgave everybody
who ever insulter him or sinned against him. He ordered the general amnesty of all prisoners. On coming home, the first ruler of the Romanov house said
goodbye to his wife and his son and quietly died. He lived exactly for 49 years, not a day more and not a day less. Russia was bidding farewell
to its ruler for three days. Thousands and thousands of
people of all ranks and estates came to bow to his coffin.
All the churches of the state held services in his honor.
People ordered prayers to be served not only in churches but even at homes. The heir to the throne Alexei
Mikhailovitch was as young as his father when he
ascended to the throne. However, the country he inherited
was absolutely different. It had strong power instead
of anarchy and prosperity and well-being instead of
destruction. Less than 30 years passed after the Time of
Trebles but the country rose from the ashes and moved forward. A man who was very talented,
handsome, gifted, clever, lively and religious ruled
this now strong country. Ahead of him were triumphal
victories and bloody revolts, great achievements and fatal mistakes. Alexei Mikhailovitch
was destined to become one of the most
controversial Russian leaders. His descendants will call
his times “the golden epoch of the Moscow Russia”. Chapter Two. Alexei Mikhailovitch. The burden of the high
power wasn’t unexpected for young Tsar Alexei. He
was being prepared to it since his childhood. The
education of princes started at 6. They were taught to read
first with an ABC book and later with Psalter. The
heir’s personnel included 20 stewards, 6 teachers, 18
musicians as well as bodyguards, acrobats and jesters. When
Alexei was seven, he already had a set of real weapons – a small
harquebus, a bow with arrows, small sables, a full
armor made in Germany as well as musical
instruments, geographical maps and engravings from Western Europe. The head teacher of Alexei
was a nobleman Boris Morozov. He was trying to broaden his
ward’s outlook and to accustom him to the Western culture. At
the beginning of his reign Tsar Alexei used to come
out to meet his noblemen in the German clothes. There
were many Europeans at the court – interpreters, diplomats and teachers. Alexei’s personal doctor,
an Englishman Samuel Collins admired his ward greatly. “The Emperor is handsome.
He is strongly built. His hair is light. He doesn’t
shave his beard. He is tall. His posture is grand.
He is cruel in his rage but mostly he is kind,
innocent, has great memory and is a patron of
faith. One could name him among the most kind and wise
rulers but for the thick cloud of informers and noblemen
who surrounded him and turned his good
inclinations to evil”. During the first two years of his reign, Alexei indulged in
different entertainments or travelled to distant
monasteries to pray to God. He was also collecting
Russian and exotic birds. He kept the elk farm in
the village of Izmaylovo and carried out agricultural
experiment. He attempted to grow melons, almonds,
cotton and grapes from Bukhara close to Moscow. However, it was
falcon hunting that undoubtedly was the favorite pastime
of Alexei Mikhailovitch. There were no less than 3,000
falcons on Tsar’s falcon farms. Tsar knew every bird by its name. There were 100 falcon
hunters of different ranks who got from 6 to 60 rubles
a year not mentioning bonuses. All the falcon hunters served
the Secret Affairs Department, therefore Tsar knew
all of them personally. The chief hunter Afanasiy
Matyushkin was his close friend. The upkeep of the falcon
farms cost the state treasure 75,000 rubles a year.
When Tsar was going hunting the hunting party
stretched for a kilometer. First to go were 300 stewards mounted on richly decorated
horses – three in a row. 300 mounted archers in
bright-red jackets followed them – five in a row. They were followed
by 500 heavily armored riders. After them went 40 parade
horses in precious harnesses. They were followed by
reserve carriage horses and finally the Tsar himself
in the English carriage with accompanying
noblemen and courtiers – another few dozens of people. The young Tsar was having fun
in a big way worthy of a Tsar. He entrusted his teacher Boris
Morozov with the routine – the rule over the state.
To do away with Morozov the noblemen decided to marry the Tsar – an adult married man
doesn’t need an educator. But Morozov provided for such a variant. When time came for the
Tsar to get married, the best beauties were brought
to him from all over the country. He liked one and gave
her a scarf and a ring. But when she came to
him for the second time in Tsarina’s clothes Morozov
ordered to tie the wreath on her head too tight. The girl fainted. It was announced that she
had the fainting sickness. Her old father, a poor
nobleman was exiled to Siberia and died from grief on the way. His family lost the Tsar’s favors. Morozov asked the young
Tsar to help him choose a fiancee for himself, a widower. He presented the
Myloslavskie sisters to him. Alexei instantly feel in
love with the elder – Maria. Morozov married the younger sister, Anna who was young enough
to be his granddaughter. In this way he strengthened
his position by the throne what was his goal. The family life of Alexei
Mikhailovitch was good. Although 5 years older
than him, Tsarina Maria proved to be an ideal wife.
They had lived together for 20 years and she
bore him 13 children. Tsar Alexei was very
affectionate towards his family. When in travels or war
trips he wrote long letters to his wife and children.
However, his life wasn’t quiet and cloudless despite
his nickname the Quietest. On June 1, 1648 Alexei and
his court was coming back to Moscow from the
Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. When the procession entered
the city gates, it turned out that the path was
blocked by a huge crowd. The city residents only wanted
to give the Tsar their petition – a written complaint about the
excesses of the bureaucrats. But the Tsar refused
to talk to the people. His archers drove them away
and arrested the leaders of the complainants. On the next day, the Tsar went to Stretenskiy monastery.
When he was coming back a huge crow by the Kremlin
pushed the security aside. Somebody caught the
Tsar’s horse by the bridle. The 19-year old Alexei was
face to face with his subjects for the very first time.
Despite being surrounded by enraged people he
managed to keep his calm, accepted the complaint
and promised to fulfill all the demands to immediately
give all the bribe takers and embezzlers out. The
first in the list was the Tsar’s favorite
Morozov. He was accused of violations, lies and extortion. In the course of two
years, Morozov turned into the richest landowner of
the state and earned a fortune. To replenish the state treasury
he cut or even cancelled wages of all the bureaucrats. They
didn’t have another choice but to take bribes.
Morozov appointed his people to the major positions after
getting large sums of money from them. Finally, he
raised the salt duty. Salt was the main
preservative that allowed storing food for winter.
When it became 4 times more expensive it stopped
being affordable to everybody. This could inflict hunger. The next events became known
in all the European court. This is a report of some Dutch
traveler, presumable a spy. “A crowd of people
came to the Tsar’s yard. The archers took the
people’s side and burst into Morozov’s house. They
were stamping their feet on everything, throwing
things out of the windows and prevented all the
attempts to take anything from the house. They
were shouting madly: “This is our blood”! Morozov escaped into one of the chambers of
His Majesty and hid there.” The revolts took place all
over Russia – in Ustyug, Sol-Vychegodsk and Kursk.
The Tsar was under siege in his own palace. The pregnant
Tsarina almost lost the baby. In five months she did
give birth to a child but the Tsar’s firstborn
didn’t even live for a year. The Tsar ordered many
bribe takers to be executed but not Morozov. “The Tsar was crying
in everybody’s presence and begged people to let
his beloved educator live”. Morozov was exiled to
Kirillo-Belozerskiy monastery. The National Assembly urgently
convened in the Kremlin. It decided that to restore
order in the state a unique and universal code of laws was needed. A special commission was
established and the Tsar himself took active part in its work. The Conciliar Code became
the first legal code that encompassed all the
spheres of the state’s existence and the first written
monument of the Russian law. It included 25 chapters and
almost a thousand of articles. The articles were copied and
glued together into a roll 309 meters long. Right after
its approval 1200 copies of it were printed and sent
to all the major cities. The Code took into account
interests of all the classes with an emphasis on gentry.
It stipulated open-ended search of the runaway peasants
what meant their absolute and final serfdom. The
Conciliar Code was in force for little less than
200 years, up to 1832. When the revolt went down
Morozov returned from the exile. But his place beside
Alexei was already taken. The new friend of the young
Tsar was the 43-year old archimandrite of
Novospasskiy monastery Nikon. Tsar Alexei was incredibly
religious since his early age. He was very good at theology and
loved solemn public liturgies. Nikon produced a great
impression upon him. Soon he was ordained to become
the Metropolitan of Novgorod and in three years
he became a Patriarch. With the Tsar’s approval
the new Patriarch started a large-scale church reform.
In the course of four centuries since the Tatar-Mongol invasion,
numerous misrepresentations and mistakes piled up
in the church books. The rites came to differ from
the Greek ones substantially. The way of life and morals
of the Russian clergy gave raise to complaints. The reform was aimed at
bringing the church life to order through correction of
mistakes and discrepancies in religious books and
bringing them in unison with the original old
Russian and Greek canons. It stipulated three-finger crossing, number of bows during services, form of musical accompaniment,
spelling of the name “Jesus Christ” with two “i”s,
correction of orthography and grammar of the Slavic
texts and their approximation with the norms of the Russian
language of those times. People who didn’t accept the
reform – the old believers – fled to distant woods. They
organized massive “burnings” – acts of self-burning in praying houses. The Archpriest Awakum who
used to hold the same views as Nikon now became one of
the most zealous opponents of the innovations. He
spent 15 years in prison. But the number of
people who supported him was steadily growing. By the end
of Alexei Mikhailovitch’s rule it was impossible to count them. Nikon’s opponents were
zealously against everything that he was doing. However
many of his innovations were useful for the church.
For example, he was trying to introduce discipline among
the clergy and promoted education. Alexei Mikhailovitch
supported the reform. But he didn’t like the
fact that Nikon interfered in the big political
affairs, diplomatic issues and war campaigns of the
Tsar. Bad rumors circulated about the Patriarch
that aimed at undermining the Tsar’s trust. Dissatisfaction
of the Tsar with the Patriarch grew to the point when once
Alexei Mikhailovitch failed to come to the Patriarch’s service
in the Assumption Cathedral. It could only mean one
thing – the Tsar doesn’t want to see Nikon anymore. Nikon left to Voskresenskiy Novoyerusalimskiy
monastery that he founded. He planned to wait for the Tsar
to come to him to apologize. But the Tsar decided to
appoint a new Patriarch. In 1666 the Great Assembly
of Hierarchs convened. Patriarch Nikon was officially
dismissed by the Assembly for wilfully leaving his
office. Archpriest Awakum was excommunicated for the
schism. However, the results of the great church reform
were fully legalized. A zealous young man, a
lover of falcon hunting, a loving husband and father
– Tsar Alexei Mykhailovitch was alone now. The Quietest
Tsar was destined to rule during the most turbulent
time in the history of Russia. During the entire reign
of the Romanov house, the largest number of people’s revolts including Senka Razin’s
discord happened while he ruled. The Ataman from the Don
Stepan Razin who used to lead the Cossacks gangs by the
Volga and the Caspian Sea wanted to turn the entire
country into a free Cossack state and raised a revolt. His
people seized a number of towns by the Volga. Dozens of
thousands peasants joined him. The administration was
forced to fight the rebels with the regular army.
The war lasted for a year until some Cossack majors gave
Razin out to the authorities. The life of Alexei
Mikhailovitch was never calm. No sooner had he settled
down the issues of revolts and reforms had a new war
with his long-standing enemy – Poland – started. Since the Time of
Troubles Rech Pospolita had been holding many Russian lands including the strategically
important Smolensk. When the Tsar left for the war
terrible news came from Moscow – plague broke out
there. The Tsar’s family together with the entire
court was urgently evacuated to the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra.
The capital was quarantined. In mid-17th century Moscow was one of the largest cities in
Europe. Before the epidemic its population amounted to
about 300 thousand people. The same number lived in Paris. In Naples there were 270
thousand, in London and Amsterdam – 200 thousand, in Venice
and Antwerp – 150 thousand, in Rome, Genoa and
Prague – 100 thousand. In the course of five
months of the epidemic over 150 thousand
people died in Moscow – a half of its population.
The bodies of the dead piled up in the streets. However soldiers in the
army demanded payment. The treasury remained in
the plague-ravaged Moscow. The archers could get
infected, and that would mean the end of the army.
Alexei Mikhailovitch came up with an idea of a
literal money laundering. Silver coins were washed
with water and leach, rinsed and only then distributed among
the troops. Nobody got sick. The war with Poland lasted for 13 years. The Russians managed to win
the entire Western Rus back. But the long war exhausted the
treasury so they had to sign the armistice and yield
a part of conquered lands. According to the Andrusov
Truce of 1667 Russia finally got back Smolensk,
Chernigov and other lands invaded by the Polish
in the Time of Troubles. The Left-Bank Ukraine became
a part of the Russian State. To replenish the treasury
Alexei Mikhailovitch’s government carried out the monetary
reform. Because of the deficit of gold and silver in the country
they introduced a copper coin that cost as much as a silver one. The wages were now paid with copper while the taxes were
still gathered in silver. Soon the copper money
lost some of their value but the mints continued to produce them. In five years one silver
ruble already cost 12 or even 15 copper rubles in Moscow. At the end of July of 1662 when the Tsar was in his
country palace in Kolomenskoye proclamations were issued in Moscow that declared all those
responsible for minting copper coins to be thieves and traitors.
People rushed to Kolomenskoye. When the Tsar went out of the
church the crowd encircled him. One quick merchant even caught
him by the buttons of his jacket. Alexei managed to gather his composure. He promised to sort that
issue out, even swore to that, and shook hands with the quick merchant. The people started to disperse.
The security of the palace managed to lead the Tsar out.
But new rebels came from Moscow. For some time Alexei was silently
listening to their insults from the high porch. He had
already summoned the archers and needed to gain time. On
seeing that the archers’ regiments encircled the crowd Tsar let himself go. The slaughter started. 2,500 people died in Kolomenskoy just in a few hours. The
revolt was suppressed; the Tsar had to cancel the copper money. The state even compensated the
losses like a bankrupt bank – 5 kopeks for one ruble.
Inquests with tortures went on for several months in a row.
The investigation commissions were trying to find the
instigators of the revolt. 150 people were hanged or quartered. About one thousand was
exiled with a letter “B” burned on their faces – from
the Russian word “buntovshchik” – “the rebel”. During the
Copper Revolt like 14 years ago the Tsarina was also pregnant
and almost lost her baby. The shock had it effect later.
In five months, the Tsarina died while giving birth.
The girl that was born only lived for 5 days. After the revolt Alexei
Mikhailovitch became incredibly suspicious. He established a special Department of Secret Affairs that combined the functions
of counter-intelligence, secret police, censure committee
and a penal institution. It also coordinated the
activities of other departments and was overseeing their work. In contrast with the other
departments, it was situated not in the Kremlin but at Lyubyanka. It had a number of torture chambers and the most numerous personnel. Many bureaucrats, shop sellers and especially
tavern keepers were unofficially paid by the
Secret Affairs Department. The Tsar had his own
office in the department. With time he started to solve
almost all the issues there. The Secret Affairs Department
was also responsible for the Tsar’s personal
office and the Day Reports – the first meteorological
observations in the history of Russia. By the end of his reign
he came to love flattery and glorification. His
courtiers were trying to beat one another in florid epithets. An educated monk and
poet Simeon Polotskiy was constantly comparing
the Tsar with the sun. All public appearances
of Alexei Mikhailovitch were staged with incredible grandeur. The monarch himself carefully devised and thought over all the
details of the ceremonies. He would soon turn into an aging despot but for a meeting with
Her. At an evening party in the house of a
nobleman Artamoniy Matveyev in accordance with the
tradition His Majesty got his first glass
from Matveyev’s niece, a 19-year old Natalia Naryshkina. At that moment the Tsar grew younger
and as if transformed. He had to observe the
proprieties, though. The election of the
fiancees was announced. 74 beauties passed their Tsar,
but only one of them didn’t worry. Natalia Naryshkina
knew that the elections were staged as a blind.
While the girls were thinking about who would become a
Tsarina Natalia was dressed in a very heavy dress and taken
to the Assumption Cathedral in the Kremlin to be
wed. In a year and a half the Tsarina gave birth to a son. It was the 14th child
of Alexei Mikhailovitch but he was as glad as
if he was his firstborn. That boy went down in history
as the first – Peter I the Great. Being so happy Alexei
Mikhailovitch decided to realize his long-lasting cherished
dream – the comedy entertainment or the theatre. A special
comedy house was built in the village of Preobrazhenskoye. Pastor Johann Gottfried Gregorn
was invited from the German village. He wrote a play based on stories from the Bible. The play was performed by 65 teenagers from the Lutheran school.
The first performance in the history of the
Russian theater took place on October 30, 1672. The
performance lasted for 10 hours. The Tsarina and the princesses
watched the performance from behind a special grate
that hid them from the courtiers. Later another five plays
were staged, also based on the Biblical stories, and the
“Orpheus” ballet was rewritten. Alexei Mikhailovitch as
if forgot about his age and refused to go old. He
started to study doctors’ books and combine herbs in
potions. He would listen to his doctors’ advice
attentively. He was especially fond of bloodletting and
recommended that procedure to all the courtiers. The Tsar
often beat those who refused. They say that sometimes the Tsar
would let his favorite falcon open blood as the bird
never missed the vein. In January of 1676 Alexei
Mikhailovitch caught a cold and decided to treat
himself on his own, as usual. But in a week his state became hopeless. On January 29 the Tsar
received the last rites and blessed his elder son
Feodor to ascend to the throne. At night of January 30 the Tsar died. Alexei Mikhailovitch was 46 years old. Alexei Mikhailovitch left
a state that was rich, strong and stable. He
was the one to create a potent base for the country’s future. However as a historical
figure he would always be in the shade of his
youngest son Peter the Great who finished what his father started. Alexei Mikhailovitch died
in the prime of his life. The country felt an orphan. The heir of the huge
country Feodor Alexeyevitch failed to come to his father’s
funerals. He was brought there on special stretchers
shaped like a chair. Looking at the sickly greenish
face under the Tsar’s hat wise people were saying:
“Brace yourselves. We shall expect the nobles’
rule and the Time of Troubles”.

Романовы. Фильм Первый. StarMedia. Babich-Design. Документальный Фильм

100 thoughts on “Романовы. Фильм Первый. StarMedia. Babich-Design. Документальный Фильм

  • November 9, 2018 at 6:51 pm

    спасибо. я многого не знала

  • November 10, 2018 at 7:31 am

    А нынешние правители могут тоько ломать

  • November 10, 2018 at 12:40 pm

    Обязательно ли нужно было мальчика публично вешать я не понемаю

  • November 10, 2018 at 5:06 pm

    Не России, а Московии

  • November 10, 2018 at 5:54 pm

    Раньше учили, что Алексей Михайлович был болезненным, дети больные, род мог пропасть, его женили на молодухе, чтобы был здоровый наследник, но он не мог зачать и будто бы Петра зачал грузинский князь. А тут здоровый лоб скачет на соколиной охоте, детей настрогал 14 штук. Кому верить?

  • November 13, 2018 at 3:21 pm

    Спасибо вам огромное,мне сдавать ЕГЭ-2019,занимаюсь репетиторством,а это дополнительно очень помогает.Большое спасибо!!!

  • November 13, 2018 at 9:29 pm

    Немки рожали от русских.Так что Романовы русские

  • November 15, 2018 at 12:45 am

    Как жесток мир, убивать людей, маленьких детей, ради власти… Все беды из за власти и денег.

  • November 16, 2018 at 11:23 am

    Кровавые романовы, но законы кармы не обманешь-как начали так и кончили

  • November 16, 2018 at 12:06 pm

    Предательство как двигатель карьерного роста. Доктор исторических наук, профессор МПГУ Александр Пыжиков рассказывает о том, как династия Романовых продвигалась к власти. Грани русского раскола. Тайная роль старообрядчества от 17 века до 17 года, Пыжиков Александр Владимирович Славянский разлом. Украинско-польское иго в России, Пыжиков Александр Владимирович #Концептуал #Пыжиков #история #Романовы #династия #Польша #Смута #Пожарский

  • November 16, 2018 at 2:36 pm

    А почему не рассказали что по приказу Алексея убили 1000 монахов на Соловках?

  • November 19, 2018 at 9:11 am

    За убийство маленького мальчика, Романовы поплатились в конце своего правления. Да мне было тоже жалко эту семью. Но когда я услышала что 3 летнего ребенка повесили у меня ноги подкосились. Он проста был жертвой бедный бедный мальчик.😢

  • November 19, 2018 at 4:16 pm

    32:08 – зачем в "людях Морозова" поставили портрет Андрея Курбского? =D

  • November 19, 2018 at 6:05 pm

    Muchas gracias por traducir el Español. Un saludo al pueblo Ruso.

  • November 23, 2018 at 1:27 pm

    Какой объемный,захватывающий,великолепный фильм,спасибо создателям.

  • November 23, 2018 at 7:15 pm

    нынче семги не больно купишь на три копейки-то…

  • November 30, 2018 at 11:45 am

    Отличный фильм

  • December 10, 2018 at 1:38 pm

    невозможно смотреть, реклама нескончаемая

  • December 11, 2018 at 1:06 pm

    Парламент в России тех времён позвали крестьян решать судьбу отечества?))) чет не оч верится

  • December 11, 2018 at 6:42 pm

    Я рада, что в школе мне показали этот фильм. Пришла досмотреть дома

  • December 11, 2018 at 9:23 pm

    В п..зду царей! Даешь демократию!

  • December 13, 2018 at 2:48 pm

    очень круто,.спасибо создателем, так даже захотелось историю самой ищучать и с интересом

  • December 14, 2018 at 9:53 pm

    3 копейки в день? Боже я конечно все понимаю но 3 КОПЕЙКИ?! КОРОВА ЗА 2 РУБЛЯ ТАКИЕ БЫ ЦЕНЫ СЕЙЧАС! Мне кажется если в то время сказали бы им что спустя 500 лет зарплата будет 15 тыс. как минимум

  • December 14, 2018 at 10:08 pm

    Глупая ложь для неграмотных от начала и до конца, во имя лживого диктатора Путаны

  • December 20, 2018 at 2:13 pm

    Россиянам неизвестно откуда у царской семьи фамилия Романов.Мало кто знают в России что у Романовых имеется молдавская кровь.А молдоване это потомки тех кто основали город Рим и Римскую империю.

  • December 23, 2018 at 12:43 pm

    ошибка Алексей Михайлович не был императором

  • December 26, 2018 at 8:55 am

    этот царь мне напоминает нашего ему также плевать на народ

  • December 30, 2018 at 3:00 pm

    Почему они Алексея Михайловича императором назвали?! Он же Царь!

  • December 31, 2018 at 11:33 am

    42:39 а почему это царь крестится двумя перстнями? Ведь ввели троеперстие.

  • January 2, 2019 at 1:39 pm

    Класс лайк 👍

  • January 3, 2019 at 9:18 am

    не пойму, в википедии одно написано, тут совсем другое говорят

  • January 3, 2019 at 7:37 pm

    очень хороший проект

  • January 8, 2019 at 11:42 am

    романовы = крепостное право

  • January 13, 2019 at 8:03 pm

    Алексей Романов 24:45

  • January 13, 2019 at 8:28 pm

    Огромное спасибо Вам за такую трудоемкую и интересно выполненную работу, пожалуйста хотелось бы такую же историю о тюркских государствах и о их правителях. СПАСИБО БОЛЬШОЕ

  • January 20, 2019 at 5:20 pm

    Нам именно ваши док. фильмы о истории России на уроке истории показывают. Только поэтому мы любим историю.
    Спасибо огромное за то, что вы для нас делаете!
    Низчайший (надеюсь есть такое слово и если есть то правильно написала) вам поклон!

  • January 25, 2019 at 1:25 pm

    крутые эти цари однако были.вообще клали на народ

  • January 30, 2019 at 1:39 am

    "История" для невежд и холопов.

  • February 4, 2019 at 9:43 am

    Главное результат!!!!! Увеличение населения и территорий при " плохих Романовых".

  • February 8, 2019 at 12:55 pm

    Почему я этот канал не находил раньше не понимаю

  • February 15, 2019 at 1:42 pm

    Я бы стал смотреть этот сериал только если бы мне заплатили. Стоп. Мы же сами платим своим пользователям за просмотр фильмов… Подробности в профиле. Смекаешь?

  • February 15, 2019 at 3:54 pm

    Немецкое платье, немецкие доспехи, приобщение к Европе….
    Вот тогда то всё и началось.
    Наши что, доспехи ковать не могли? Платьев не шили?
    За державу обидно!!!

  • February 20, 2019 at 9:57 am


  • February 26, 2019 at 3:50 pm

    Путину бы в уши

  • February 27, 2019 at 3:49 pm

    Отличные док.фильм!Самое то готовится к ЕГЭ , самое главное смотрится на одном дыхании , очень интересно , сел делать уроки-открыл серию и сидел час.
    Лайк и подписка 😉

  • March 2, 2019 at 12:51 am

    Будет сериал про Смутное время? Тема очень интересная

  • March 2, 2019 at 9:37 am

    3х летнего мальчишку лишить жизни ….Как рука поднялась у Царя ? Бедный ребёнок стал заложником дерьма взрослых (((

  • March 4, 2019 at 6:10 pm

    Я не смотрел, а как там у Романовых про уничтожение летописей и истории Руси?

  • March 7, 2019 at 4:07 pm

    Каждый писатель, каждый сценарист и прочие, показывают историю Российского государства со учетом своего взгляда и мнения на нее. При этом, конечно же опираются на достоверные и известные факты. Меня радует появление нового исторического художественного сериала ,,Годунов,, (рекомендую) и данного фильма ''Романовы''. Скажу честно, трудно было оторваться от просмотра. Очень познавательно и очень интересно!!!!

  • March 9, 2019 at 10:17 pm

    Не романовы, гольштейны.а по сему хуцпа

  • March 10, 2019 at 1:07 pm

    Не могу оторваться, пересматриваю уже не раз. Хотелось бы тоже самое увидеть о Рюриках и о правителях после Романовых. Хочется разложить всё по полочкам, а СтарМедиа всегда помогает это сделать. Благодаря вам влюбилась в историю окончательно!

  • March 10, 2019 at 3:42 pm

    Ничего не поменялось…1.5 кг свежей сёмги в день примерно 1000 рублей в день.Не далеко ушли…

  • March 16, 2019 at 5:09 am

    Фильм сделан красиво, но и врут так же искусно. Из Филарета сделали жертву. Только вот почему не сказали что он стал патриархом при поддержке Лжедмитрия? Что он, Филарет, был в польско-литовском клане, который пытался Иван IV извести через опричнину, тк те хотели власти ? А то что Филарет поехал в Польшу чтобы с Сигезмундом делить Россию согласно более ранним договорённостям, почему не сказали? Сигезмунд взял его в плен тк узнал что его сын Михаил стал царём, расценив это как желание Филарета править Россией без него, что противоречило их договорённостям.

  • March 18, 2019 at 11:25 pm

    Вот удивляюсь,как все актуально и на сегодняшний день.Бояре-олигархи,и наоборот,смута в стране.Все переплетается,все взаимосвязано.Ничто не вечно под луной!

  • March 20, 2019 at 9:26 am

    Казнили, как вора Ребенка! Не поэтому ли такая страшная участь постигла Романовых?..

  • March 21, 2019 at 3:56 pm

    Тогда было самое начало Пшекии Посполитой. После Грюнвальдской битвы возомнили себя "детьми солнца", мля… и решили русских "варваров" оцивилизовывать.

  • March 22, 2019 at 6:55 pm

    Красивый, талантливый… Годунов был не хуже. А может даже во много раз лучше. Вопрос в том, кому тогда было выгодно Романова на трон посадить. И другой вопрос, кому было выгодно Рюриковичей истребить. Да, Грозный сам умер, но из остальных последних, практически ни одной естественной смерти, включая сына Грозного. И не надо ля-ля, что он дескать его убил. Это миф.

  • March 24, 2019 at 2:32 pm

    Хуево правил, значит, этот любитель соколиной охоты, раз столько бунтов пришлось на время его правления.

  • March 27, 2019 at 1:18 pm

    Ребята, а по моему чушь полная !!!
    Такое ощущение, что все были насильники, воры, убийцы и разбойники, мечтающие о западной жизни !!!
    И при этом территория Руси увеличивается !!!
    Что то тут не так в этом фильме !!! Ощущение такое, что "за уши" все притянуто !!!

  • March 31, 2019 at 8:31 am

    Книги то сожгли, а не сохранили…, романовские историки переписали историю…

  • April 1, 2019 at 6:31 am

    Я с сестрой снимался в этом фильме смотреть с 16:00

  • April 3, 2019 at 8:27 am

    Обожаю Михаила Федоровича и вашу музыку❤❤❤❤❤

  • April 15, 2019 at 11:27 am

    После рассказа о Михаиле Романове хочется понять его способы преображения России из страны с отстало экономикой в страну с процветающей. Были озвучены привлечение европейских технологий, строительство сталеплавильного и оружейного заводов, низкие налоги. Что ещё?

  • April 16, 2019 at 12:30 pm

    Все бы хорошо, но смерть Дмитрия – это не причина Смуты, а предпосылка. А причины – экономические и социальные противоречия в русском обществе, связанные с отсталостью страны, плохой экономикой…

  • April 16, 2019 at 4:46 pm

    25:30 как называется инструмент чуть правее от глобуса

  • April 17, 2019 at 11:01 am

    >>>Все понимали, России нужен законный царь. Иначе страна просто погибнет

    Мкхм, а может просто нужно было учредить республику? =)

    >>>без наследника существование новой династии и России под вопросом

    Так может всётаки учредить республику всётаки? Не надо? Ну, не надо, так не надо, кушайте

  • April 18, 2019 at 7:18 pm

    Стар Медиа! Ваши фильмы самые лучшие!

  • April 19, 2019 at 11:44 am

    Персидский царь, шах Аббас первый переслал ризу Господню московскому царю Михалу Федоровичу. Но почему ни один из историков не упоминает откуда риза появилась у шаха? А появилась она в Грузии через грузинских евреев, один из которых, Элиоз, присутствовал на распятии Христа. Риза хранилась в храме 12 Апостолов в Мцхета, а хитон Христа погребен вместе с Сидонией в той же церкви. Шах Аббас, который опустошал Грузию, без разрешения грузинского патриарха и царя, самовольно подарил эту святыню русскому царю.И в акафисте ризоположения имя шаха Аббаса тоже упоминается. О чем свидетельствует этот факт? Для меня не совсем понятна эта дружба между русским царем и персидским шахом. И почему риза не возвращается Грузии?

  • April 22, 2019 at 7:33 pm

    Казнили трёхлетнего мальчика!!! Необходимость видите ли была – НЕТ НИКАКОГО ОПРАВДАНИЯ ТАКОМУ ПРЕСТУПЛЕНИЮ!

  • April 28, 2019 at 6:47 am


  • May 2, 2019 at 4:47 pm

    Борис морозов прожил 71 год.

  • May 5, 2019 at 7:09 am

    Месяц до ОГЭ😂

  • May 9, 2019 at 10:00 pm

    Очень интересно было бы посмотреть нечто подобное про Вторую Мировую!

  • May 11, 2019 at 7:41 pm

    Как же мне нравится заставка на 1:23 . Просто мурашки по коже

  • May 13, 2019 at 2:28 pm

    Убил ребёнка и его последнего ребёнка убили.
    Никто не забыт и ничто не забыто.
    Пришли к власти кровью детской Романовы чужой,отдали кровь детскую свою с властью.

  • May 13, 2019 at 2:39 pm

    На корову за два месяца зарабатывали.Почти как сейчас.
    А вот цыплята явно подешевели с рыбкой.

  • May 21, 2019 at 12:42 pm

    Эта волнующая скрипка заставляет меня нервничать.

  • May 22, 2019 at 12:10 pm

    Через лет 50 может выйдет сериал – НАЗАРБАЕВЫЙ! (диктатор)

  • May 25, 2019 at 10:02 am

    А ведь Алексей Михайлович был тот ещё царёк… Че он там заложил? Рабство разве что.

  • May 28, 2019 at 11:08 am

    Рекламы напихали …. За это антилайк и получили👎🏻

  • June 7, 2019 at 5:17 pm

    Вот как надо историю рассказывать. Меня аж затянуло. Не могла оторваться. На наших уроках мы только и делаем что ждем его конца, потому что учитель рассказывает больше про свою молодость чем про свой предмет

  • June 11, 2019 at 11:14 am

    По моему, это самая большая ложь! Эта сказка-история сочинённая этими романовыми.

  • June 12, 2019 at 7:24 am

    Шикарный фильм!

  • June 12, 2019 at 6:21 pm

    По свидетельствам чужих русские жестоки…но так ли это??? Или нас в этом просто убеждают?

  • June 15, 2019 at 8:41 pm

    "…просили принять бремя власти.." А сейчас не выгонишь эту власть.

  • June 20, 2019 at 7:24 am

    А ещё они любили стрелять по воронам.

  • June 22, 2019 at 10:39 pm

    Какая же красавица актриса Александра Платонова, играющая Наталью Нарышкину! У неё есть сестра-близнец, Полина Одинцова, тоже очень талантливая и красивая актриса. Сначала подумала, что Наталью Нарышкину играет Полина, но нет)

  • June 23, 2019 at 10:56 am

    Огромное спасибо!

  • June 23, 2019 at 11:07 am

    Не смогла досмотреть про последнего императора.Мерзкие твари большевики,насильники,детоубийцы,развратники и некрофилы,горите в аду вечно с вашим проституткой лениным

  • June 27, 2019 at 11:45 am

    "И царь лично ходит знакомиться с ними"- очень приятно царь.

  • July 4, 2019 at 7:45 pm

    Я очень люблю этот сериал, смотрю его много раз, и ещё буду смотреть, создателям этого чуда моё искреннее СПАСИБО

  • July 15, 2019 at 4:01 pm


  • July 19, 2019 at 9:04 pm


  • July 22, 2019 at 2:31 pm

    Хорошо было бы если бы Греческие субтитры Прекрасные серии браво!!

  • July 23, 2019 at 9:08 pm

    Здравствуйте, как добиться такой озвучки? Это человек озвучивал или программа

  • August 1, 2019 at 7:29 am

    Комплиментарный патриотический заурядный и невежественный фильм, который апеллирует к самому низкому чувству патриотизма бездарей, которые не знают, а главное и знать не хотят родной истории.

  • August 5, 2019 at 12:18 am

    Это фильм шедевр! Огромное спасибо создателям.Смотрю только Star Media фильмы.Они самые лучшие!😊

  • August 8, 2019 at 10:27 pm

    Охуенный царь, не может даже жениться с той, с кем может из-за влияния мамаши. Хуже Томмена Баратеона из Игры Престолов. Вы историю-то почитайте, он два раза пытался на ней жениться, мамаша начала истерить, сказала, что не уедет. И какое потомство? Чмо и ничтожество

  • August 12, 2019 at 12:50 pm

    20:26 я недавно был в кремле и в храме Ризоположения, я прочитал, что храм в честь Положения ризы Пресвятой Богородицы. Почему?

  • August 20, 2019 at 5:31 pm

    Раньше народ сразу бунт поднимал, если что то не устраивало,а сейчас терпилы


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