Kaplan turbines are suitable for power extraction when water energy is available at low head and high flow rate which means they are suitable for operation when water is stored in big reservoir at relatively shallow altitude In kaplan turbine flow is entered through a spiral casing decreasing area of casing make sure that flow is entered through center portion almost at uniform velocity
throughut the perimeter water after crossing the guide vanes passes over the runner finally it leaves through the draft tube most important part of kaplan turbine is it’s runner cross section of runner blade will have a curve shape when water flows over it it will induce a lift force due to airfoil effect tangential component of lift force will make the runner rotate this rotation is transferred to a generator for electricity production kaplan turbines are axial flow machines where absolute velocity of flow is parallel to axis of turbine water is precisely meet to pass through the runner blades with the help of shroud power demand may fluctuate over time this can meet for varing power demand blades of kaplan turbine are designed to operate under wide range of operating conditions A rotating blade experiences relative velocity of flow the fundamental thing in blade design is relative velocity of fluid flow should be at optimum angle of attack at all cross sections even though absolute velocity is axial relative velocity will be inclined depending upon blade velocity Inclination of relative velocity increases as removed from rotor tip there should be continuous twist in blade from rotor tip so that at every cross section the angle of attack is optimum with varing flow condition relative velocity will change drastically kaplan turbine blades are adjustable when flow rate is high relative velocity of flow will be more axial so blades should pitch vertically If flow rate is low relative velocity of flow is more tangential So blades are pitched in tangential direction in short the pitching action of blade make sure that blade is still in optimum angle of attack even under varying flow apart from controlling the flow rate guide vanes have got one more function they help in controlling swirl of flow if guide vanes will not present the flow would be highly swirling in nature such a flow will reduce performance of turbine drastically due to its poor angle of attack so guide vanes control swirling flow for optimum angle of attack biggest challenge in design of kaplan turbine is how to overcome problem of cavitation which causes material erosion and vibration cavitation is unavoidable in kaplan turbine since in most of the regions pressure goes very low but damage due to cavitation can be reduced by using suitable draft tube which transforms dynamic pressure to static pressure

Kaplan Turbine Working and Design

94 thoughts on “Kaplan Turbine Working and Design

  • May 2, 2013 at 3:00 pm
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    What is the other 2?

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  • May 6, 2013 at 12:35 am
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    This is such a good case study. Thanks

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  • May 9, 2013 at 12:06 pm
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    Pelton and Francis Turbine

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  • July 30, 2013 at 11:45 am
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    great work and thanks..

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  • July 31, 2013 at 3:32 pm
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    too good….!!!

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  • August 19, 2013 at 2:02 pm
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    Me parece un trabajo estupendo y un avance increible. Felicitaciones a la persona o personas que han realizado estupendo trabajo.
    I find a great job and amazing progress. Congratulations to the person or people who have done great job.

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  • August 20, 2013 at 6:37 am
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    Than you Wilson for your well wishes!

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  • September 29, 2013 at 6:28 pm
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    congratulations, great job

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  • November 26, 2013 at 4:22 pm
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    He didnt say who invent it!

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  • April 11, 2014 at 7:33 am
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    .yet again..super

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  • September 20, 2014 at 12:08 pm
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    i love the way he says "velocity"

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  • November 6, 2014 at 3:12 pm
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    Very informative video, thank you. I'd like to know, if you were given a site that have low head and small flow rate, what type of turbine would you use? (besides waterwheel)

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  • November 9, 2014 at 1:41 pm
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    thank u for this informative cideo…………………………………..

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  • March 17, 2015 at 7:46 am
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    why guide vanes and not circular intake?

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  • April 30, 2015 at 8:48 pm
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    Thankyou so much…

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  • May 28, 2015 at 3:27 pm
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    To : @Learn Engineering 
    I hope you will explain about , Cross Flow Turbine , Turgo Impluse Turbine, tubular turbine dan bulb turbine. with your awesome animation 3d like have you upload.
    thanks

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  • June 18, 2015 at 4:35 pm
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    what is guide vane angle?

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  • September 29, 2015 at 11:10 am
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    video is very nice 4r learning d turbine

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  • November 11, 2015 at 1:24 am
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    alguien que me lo explique en español porfavor 🙁

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  • November 15, 2015 at 5:02 am
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    very much informative.. thank you

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  • November 20, 2015 at 1:24 pm
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    Awesome video.. Thank you

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  • November 20, 2015 at 2:58 pm
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    Very useful video … Thank You

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  • April 6, 2016 at 4:21 pm
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    Neato. <3
    Love bot's neutral speech-o-matic hypoallergenic style.

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  • May 12, 2016 at 10:54 am
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    fuck this talking robot

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  • June 3, 2016 at 10:51 am
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    pink sheep's voice

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  • August 9, 2016 at 12:42 pm
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    what is cavitation

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  • September 1, 2016 at 5:20 am
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    You should go to Inplix if you'd like to make it yourself guys.

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  • September 26, 2016 at 1:58 pm
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    very helpful and nicely explained..

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  • October 11, 2016 at 3:21 am
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    I'd rather hear a human talking.

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  • November 28, 2016 at 4:30 am
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    you could subtitle it
    in Spanish

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  • November 29, 2016 at 5:30 am
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    Isnt kaplan an axial flow turbine??
    This inlet seems similar to a francis turbine..pls do explain…

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  • April 20, 2017 at 7:22 pm
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    Good job
    I have a case study in river without dam ( conjunction ) h=6.5 m, Q=(45 to 86) cubic metres
    what is the best type of turbine used?
    thanks

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  • May 20, 2017 at 10:54 pm
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    I'm thinking of using a jet ski pump drive, should I introduce the water flow thru the original intake? because the impeller blades pitch is reduced going towards the output, what do you think sir

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  • June 19, 2017 at 7:48 pm
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    Please make a real human do the explanation… Its hard to understand the robot's language.

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  • June 25, 2017 at 4:25 pm
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    Muy lindo trabajo, very good work, très belle démonstration……

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  • July 9, 2017 at 6:09 pm
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    Excellent!!! for clear kind working

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  • July 13, 2017 at 3:18 am
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    Very nice presentation , I want to have a similar video on turbine Governing which is a complicated subject.

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  • July 18, 2017 at 4:14 pm
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    10 kaplan gücünde

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  • July 21, 2017 at 11:26 pm
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    Thanks so much for these magnificent videos.

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  • August 2, 2017 at 6:25 am
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    Hi can you Tell, How Hydraulic Motor/Pump/Press Works?

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  • September 3, 2017 at 7:36 pm
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    Very informative … As good visualisation

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  • September 14, 2017 at 5:56 am
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    nice….1

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  • September 18, 2017 at 6:23 am
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    Aw, this was a really nice post. In idea I wish to put in writing like this moreover – taking time and precise effort to make an excellent video however what can I say I procrastinate alot and under no circumstances appear to get something done.

    Reply
  • October 9, 2017 at 3:00 am
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    thank you

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  • October 10, 2017 at 9:44 pm
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    good explained

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  • October 23, 2017 at 1:32 am
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    Sir Plz Aap hindi aur English me bhi explain kijiye

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  • November 5, 2017 at 1:28 pm
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    What is meant by absolute velocity and relative velocity

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  • November 15, 2017 at 9:59 am
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    Inspirative video, thanks mate

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  • December 1, 2017 at 2:09 pm
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    Not all Kaplan turbines have adjustable blades. Larger units have fixed blades.

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  • December 10, 2017 at 9:37 am
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    Can this pump is meanually operet

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  • January 5, 2018 at 10:15 am
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    https://youtu.be/O5ob8yitkJg

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  • January 22, 2018 at 1:20 pm
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    What do you mean by angle of attack?

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  • January 31, 2018 at 1:34 am
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    I hate computer readers…………..see ya

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  • February 10, 2018 at 10:49 am
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    You are the best.. I like so much your videos.. 👌👌👌👍

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  • February 24, 2018 at 1:02 pm
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    USE A HUMAN VOICE> If you need one i'd help

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  • March 3, 2018 at 6:58 pm
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    Sir do u have its solidworks file…????

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  • March 7, 2018 at 4:23 am
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    Well, this isn't a great description how a Kaplan turbine works. The guide vanes for example, are newer pointing to the center, and the main reason with the adjustable blade is to have optimized trailing edge angle so the flow swirl component from the guide vanes are fully absorbed by the turbine.

    Half of the static head is converted to velocity when it passes the wicket gate (guide vane assembly) so the water rotates (swirl) when it enters the turbine, this swirl (contains half of the energy) is absorbed and the flow is leaving the turbine in axial direction.

    The swirl angle changes with the flow rate, so with fixed blade the turbine has a narrow band of best efficiency.

    So the main different between a Francis and a Kaplan is that the Kaplan has a much wider range of best efficiency owing the ability to adjust its blades and thus absorb the swirl, so 50% of head is converted to rotation that the turbine absorb and discharge axial, into the draft tube.

    When a Francis turbine operates at full load (BEP is usually 80% of full load) the swirl after the turbine is rotating the opposite direction and therefore the efficiency goes down.

    I'm an hydropower engineer and have worked many years designing Kaplan turbines at Andritz Hydro.

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  • March 30, 2018 at 5:17 am
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    How does contra rotating propeller work?

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  • April 2, 2018 at 7:21 am
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    thanks sir

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  • April 10, 2018 at 4:16 am
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    Tanks sir

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  • April 25, 2018 at 5:25 am
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    Idiot robot speaking.

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  • May 2, 2018 at 8:00 am
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    How much electricity can this generate?

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  • May 11, 2018 at 12:02 pm
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    please give a new video and more types of knowledge thank you

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  • May 17, 2018 at 10:49 am
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    Lift force? waht are ya stupid?

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  • May 28, 2018 at 11:51 am
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    Very helpful .thanks✌

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  • June 8, 2018 at 8:54 pm
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    I'm VERY interested in this topic and am moving to areas with high volume/low head….. BUT I can't stand the robotic computer voice. I'll look for the information elsewhere and I'm blocking this channel.

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  • August 12, 2018 at 3:10 pm
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    please share more about kaplan

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  • August 27, 2018 at 8:12 pm
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    how it is Cross sectional are

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  • September 2, 2018 at 11:11 pm
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    This channel is for genius ♥️you channel maker

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  • September 6, 2018 at 3:11 pm
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    very nice sir

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  • September 9, 2018 at 6:56 pm
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    Pink Sheep

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  • October 9, 2018 at 7:13 am
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    why we need water at inlet of vanes to be of uniform velocity ?. I know this is the function of spiral casing but if the water strikes the vanes with different velocity the turbine will still work . How will this affect the efficiency ?

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  • October 15, 2018 at 4:51 pm
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    Nice video but the voice so annoying

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  • October 24, 2018 at 5:05 pm
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    Nice explanation as always😊…btw saw whatsapp's advertisement!! For first time😄

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  • November 14, 2018 at 1:11 am
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    Very nice and effective far knowledge

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  • November 28, 2018 at 6:18 pm
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    4 mks question in engineering exam

    Reply
  • December 3, 2018 at 1:47 am
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    Way of Learning 👍

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  • December 21, 2018 at 5:52 pm
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    I can't understand that lift force concept it even comes in steam turbines 😭😭😭

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  • December 22, 2018 at 1:39 pm
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    Great explanation. But, artificial voice makes irritating. Please edit the dubbing of video with human being voice. If you need assistance , I'd help.

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  • January 5, 2019 at 2:30 pm
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    Best..tutorial Video Ever

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  • January 13, 2019 at 8:24 am
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    Can someone please explain to me what is the use of the swirl casing for Kaplan turbine. If the end requirements for water entering the runner are to be axial and uniform throughout the perimeter, we can simply put the runner in the pipe from which water is entering the swirl casing. It would reduce pressure loss as well.

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  • February 14, 2019 at 4:45 am
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    Very similar to Francis turbine

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  • February 19, 2019 at 10:37 am
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    Well explained video

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  • March 15, 2019 at 12:01 pm
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    Is relative velocity is same at all the blade's???

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  • March 26, 2019 at 3:00 pm
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    I have a doubt here. So, when water comes out from the draft tube into the open atmosphere, what makes sure that the pressure have come down to atmospheric level?? It it the length of the tube or the cross section ? if so then again there is more doubt. The flow rate and flow velocity is variable. If for a certain design, what happens if water enters at high speed (higher than the design speed).

    Reply
  • May 4, 2019 at 5:24 am
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    it will.be much effective and Easy for the viewer to understand,if you add subtitle

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  • June 15, 2019 at 8:01 am
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    The oldest video I didn't watch,

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  • July 23, 2019 at 11:18 pm
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    Acho que foi boa a explicação , mas não entendi nada porque não falo inglês .

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  • July 24, 2019 at 11:31 pm
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    The blades are curved incorrectly for downward flow of water. The way they are shown will not result in lift, only reaction.

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  • August 1, 2019 at 11:51 pm
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    Какую чушь несёт этот " физик – механик", но умно так, даже с векторами. Нихрена в турбинах не смыслящий. Турбина в другую сторону крутится, вместе с потоком, который закручивает спиральная камера. А крутящий момент на турбине образуется от разницы давления сверху и снизу лопасти, как у самолёта. Физик – недоучка "механику" прочитал, до гидравлика не добрался.

    Reply
  • August 21, 2019 at 1:00 am
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    EXCELLENT SIR , THE WAY U EXPLAINED AND THE ANIMATION WAS SUPERB MADE EVERY LISTENER EASY TO IMAGINE HOW FLOW WILL BE IN KAPLAN TURBINE.

    THANK YOU.

    Reply
  • August 22, 2019 at 7:23 am
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    Where is this rotating turbine to bring us freedoms from the police state and things citizens used to do freely but can't because of fear of them? Just because you don't see it doesn't mean it isn't there. Even in a deep police state there are still loopholes to allow you to shift things in your favor so it seems like your doing something illegal but really aren't. Look at the loopholes in 1984. As secured as their society was it was able to be exploited eventually.

    Reply

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